Gender and age differences in the internalization of gender stereotypes in early and mid adolescence
Villanueva-Blasco, Victor José
Grau-Alberola, Ester (1)
Tipo de Ítem:Articulo Revista Indexada
Introduction. Gender, understood as a social construction, determines the categorization of roles attributed to men and women by society. Adolescence is a critical period in the formation of gender identity, as well as in the development and consolidation of gender stereotypes and roles. Method. The aim of the study was to analyze differences in gender stereotypes in early adolescence (11-13 years) and middle adolescence (14-16 years), according to sex and age. The sample was composed of 880 adolescents from Secondary Schools in Aragon (Spain), of which 48.4% were male and 51.6% were female, with a mean age of 13.7 years. The Gender stereotypes variable was assessed using the Escala de Estereotipos de Genero (Gender Stereotypes Scale, Colas & Villaciervos, 2007). Using Levene's test and Cohen's d, differences were determined for each study variable and between the seventh-and tenth-graders, for both sexes respectively. Results: The results show that there were significant differences in the internalization of gender stereotypes according to sex and age, where the transition to middle adolescence was critical. In the general scale, the presence of stereotypes was greater in males than in females. When analyzed by subtypes, there was a greater presence of these stereotypes in male youths: with a large effect size (Cohen's d) for the subtypes Body, Competence and Affect in tenth grade; an intermediate effect size in Competence in ninth grade, Affect in eighth and ninth grades, and Social Responsibility in tenth grade; and with a small effect size in Social Responsibility in ninth grade. On the other hand, there was a greater presence of stereotypes in females in seventh grade only, with an intermediate effect size in the Emotional subtype, and a small effect size in Social Behavior. Moreover, the evolution of the presence of gender stereotypes differed according to sex, tending to decrease in the female youths, and to increase in the males. Discussion and conclusions. Psychological, educational and social repercussions are discussed. In conclusion, we offer orientation as to the need for age-adjusted, preventive interventions that include the gender perspective.
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